Floods, Paris


PARIS INONDÉ (janvier 1910). — Rue Saint-Charles (Grenelle)
[Paris flooded (January 1910). Saint Charles Street (Grenelle)]
c.1910

Google Street View.

FLOODS IN FRANCE
ALL QUARTERS AFFECTED.
PARIS STREETS SUBMERGED. WIDESPREAD DESTRUCTION.

LONDON, Jan. 23.
Several streets in Paris are flooded, and residents along the quays are using boats. Inundations at the electric power stations caused a partial interruption of the metropolitan and East Parisian tramway services. Floods in the valleys of the Rhone, Aube, Loire, and Meuse have resulted in enormous damage.

Jan. 24.

The Seine is 12ft above its normal height at this season of the year, and, owing to falls of snow and heavy rains, continues to rise. Parisians have become alarmed at the flooding of the underground railways. Three lines have ceased running owing to sections being submerged. There is also is a danger that the river will reach the level of the sewers. The bear pit in the Zoological Gardens is flooded, and many streets leading to the Seine are submerged.

Parliament has been asked to vote £80,00 for the relief of the victims. The Rhone has risen 13ft. Disasters are reported from many provincial districts.
Sydney Morning Herald, 25 January 1910

The present floods throughout a great part of France would appear to be unprecedented. Certainly the like have never been experienced Paris. Happily in the French capital the houses nowhere abut directly on the river banks which throughout the entire length are protected by broad embankments, otherwise the damage would assuredly be greater As it is 20,000 people have been given from their homes[?] in the low=lying districts bordering the river. The greatest hardships seem to have been felt in the south-eastern portion where the Seine, having received the waters of its tributary the Marne, enters the city with a width of 636ft[?] and begins its meandering course of seven miles through the heart of Paris.

No fewer than 30 bridges span the river within the city built and several of these have had to be closed to traffic owing to the flood waters having submerged the roadway. The terminals of the Lyons and Orleans railways on opposite banks of the river have, the cable tells us, suffered considerable damage. The Quai d’Austerlitz, a fine thoroughfare which skirts the latter station on the left bank has also been undermined by water. The loss in goods and merchandise generally along the quays of the Seine must be enormous and one can picture the scene presented as the swirling torrent carried everything before it.
Sydney Morning Herald, 29 January 1910 (Extract)

ALL CENTRAL PARIS SUBMERGED.

The cup of Parisian bitterness is not yet full. The excited crowds which lined the quays of Paris on Friday, and greeted with shouts of joy the discovery that the waters were receding, have seen their high hopes blasted, for the flood fiend only relaxed his clammy grip in order that he might grasp and lay waste a more extensive area of the city of pleasure. Further violent rains on Friday caused the Seine to rise higher than it has ever been before, with the result that a great part of the city along either bank is completely inundated.

If it were merely a matter of the river overflowing its banks, the situation would be grave enough, but unfortunately the choking of the drains and sewers has added unforeseen terrors to those already heaped upon the stricken residents. Streets and roadways have been burst open by the pressure of the waters, others have collapsed, cellars and basements have been invaded, gas and water pipes have been wrenched away, and other service mains dismantled. In hundreds of instances houses have been rendered uninhabitable; in others people have been imprisoned for days by the engulfing waters, and have had to fight for their lives with famished and desperate rats, and cry pleadingly from their windows for bread.
Sydney Morning Herald, 31 January 1910

THE PARIS FLOOD.
QUARTER, OF A MILLION IN DISTRESS.
RIVERS FALLING.
STRAIGHTENING THE SEINE DEMANDED BY THE PEOPLE.

LONDON, Jan. 30.
Seven thousand residents of Gennevilliers, 21 miles from the city wall, adjacent to the numerous Paris market gardens, have been rescued from the flood waters.
Parisians are demanding the straightening of the course of the Seine at whatever cost, like Peter the Great Canal, in the River Neva, which has served as an outlet for that river in time of floods. When the quays were built along the Seine the river bed was restricted in order to deepen the stream. This has largely caused the present disaster.

M. Millerand, Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, estimates that 8000 Parisians are homeless and foodless. Direct telegraphic and telephonic communication with London has practically ceased.

The Seine fell 5 inches on Saturday, and the Marne, Aube, and Alane 6 feet.
Sydney Morning Herald, 1 February 1910


INONDATIONS DE PARIS (Janvier 1910). — Pont de Solférino
[Flooding of Paris (January 1910). — Solferino Bridge]
c.1910
Publisher: Levy Sons & Co. (1895-1919)

Google Street View.

The passerelle Léopold-Sédar-Senghor, formerly known as passerelle Solférino (or pont de Solférino), is a footbridge over the River Seine in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is served by the Metro station Assemblée Nationale. For a century, a cast iron bridge inaugurated by Napoleon III in 1861 allowed vehicles to cross between quai Anatole-France and quai des Tuileries. Built by the engineers of the Pont des Invalides, Paul-Martin Gallocher de Lagalisserie and Jules Savarin, it was named after the June 1859 French victory of the Battle of Solferino. Having weakened over time (particularly due to barges crashing into it), it was demolished and replaced in 1961 with a steel footbridge.
Wikipedia.

Château de Malmaison, Paris


MALMAISON (S.-et-O.) — La Chambre de Premier Consul aux Tuileries
Chamber of the First Consul in the Tulleries

1910s
Published: A. Papeghin, Paris-Tours (1900-1931)

Street View (exterior).

Virtual Tour

The Château de Malmaison is a French château situated near the left bank of the Seine, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of the centre of Paris, in the municipality of Rueil-Malmaison. Formerly the residence of Empress Joséphine de Beauharnais, along with the Tuileries it was the headquarters of the French government from 1800 to 1802, and Napoleon’s last residence in France at the end of the Hundred Days in 1815.
Wikipedia.

The château de Malmaison, purchased by Josephine in 1799 was, together with the Tuileries, the French government’s headquarters from 1800 to 1802. When Napoleon moved to Saint-Cloud, Josephine stayed in Malmaison and commissioned a wide range of improvements to the house. She settled in permanently after her divorce in 1809 and died there on May 29, 1814.
Napolean.org

The linear and graceful style that characterises the interior decor of the Château de Malmaison is directly influenced by 18th century art but also features the innovative and visionary mark of the two architects Percier and Fontaine. Their style, created from a combination of Antiquity and Renaissance which they both immersed themselves in on their trip to Rome, is reflected in this old residence which became the archetype of consular style. There are no shortage of archaeological and historical references: Doric pilasters and stucco columns in the vestibule, decorative motifs inspired by Roman and Pompeian paintings on the library ceiling and in the dining room, and military trophies for bravery painted on the doors of the council chamber. While the mahogany arcs and columns in the library echo the Palladian-style motifs, the painted ceiling alludes to the literary authors whose works Bonaparte appreciated, and the council chamber with its fabric walls supported by fasces and pikes brings to mind the army tents used to decorate parks in Europe.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau


MALMAISON. — La Chambre de Josephine. – C.M.
The Bedroom of Josephine

c.1910
Publisher: C. Malcuit

The most significant transformation was that of Joséphine’s bedchamber, which was given the shape of an almost circular tent thanks to a red sheet enhanced with golden embroidery that was hung on the walls. The ceiling was covered in a painting by Blondel representing Juno on his chariot, and the walls were decorated with numerous mirrors as well as eight flower paintings by Redouté.
Musee national des chateaux de Malmaison & Bois-Preau

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Paris Mint, France


PARIS — Hôtel des Monnaies- Cour d’Honneur – Façade sud
South facade
c. 1920

Google Street View.

Following the partition of the Carolingian Empire – made official in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun – imperial power waned significantly. At the time, numerous coin striking workshops were scattered right across the territory that constitutes modern-day France. . . . For several centuries, the number of royal workshops varied. Some were repeatedly closed and reopened due to financial crises, while the needs of the king (financing wars, etc) and new territories annexed by the crown also caused frequent fluctuations in how many were active at any one time. At the end of 1689 there were 22 in total, yet barely two years later this number had risen to 27. The regional workshops gradually disappeared and in 1870 only three remained: Bordeaux, Paris and Strasbourg. By 1878, only Monnaie de Paris was still in operation.
Monnaie de Paris

The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France’s coins. Founded in AD 864 with the Edict of Pistres, it is the world’s oldest continuously running minting institution. . . . A Neoclassical edifice, the Hôtel de la Monnaie was designed by Jacques-Denis Antoine and built from 1767–1775 on the Left Bank of the Seine. The Monnaie was the first major civic monument undertaken by Antoine, yet shows a high level of ingenuity on the part of the architect. Today it is considered a key example of French Neoclassicism in pre-Revolutionary Paris. The building is typified by its heavy external rustication and severe decorative treatment. It boasts one of the longest façades on the Seine; its appearance has been likened to the Italian palazzo tradition.
Wikipedia.


PARIS — Hôtel des Monnaies- Cour d’Honneur – Le Grand Escalier
The Grand Staircase.
c. 1920

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Paris Metro, Paris


PAIRS — Le Métropolitain
Paris — The Metropolitan (Alma-Marceau station)

c.1950
Pubisher: Bobillard?

RTAP (official website)

The Paris Métro, short for Métropolitain, is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau. It is mostly underground and 214 kilometres (133 mi) long. . . . The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World’s Fair (Exposition Universelle). The system expanded quickly until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s. The network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations.
Wikipedia.

Gare du Nord (Northern Railway Station) & Boulevard du Denain, Paris


PARIS – La Gare du Nord et le Boulevard Denain
Northern Railway Station
c.1910
Publishers: J. Cormault & E. Papeghin, Paris

Google Street View.

Media Centre for Art History: panorama of a station platform

The Gare du Nord (English: station of the North or North station), officially Paris-Nord, is one of the six large mainline railway station termini in Paris, France. The station accommodates trains between the capital and Northern France via the Paris–Lille railway, as well as to international destinations in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. . . . The chairman of the Chemin de Fer du Nord railway company, James Mayer de Rothschild, chose the French architect Jacques Ignace Hittorff to design the current station. Construction of the new complex was carried out between May 1861 to December 1865; the new station actually opened for service while still under construction during 1864. The façade was designed around a triumphal arch and used many slabs of stone. The building has the usual U-shape of a terminus station.
Wikipedia.

Parc Monceau, Paris


Parc Monceau
Postmarked 1908

Google Street View.

The Hector Berlioz Website (more old views of park)

When France’s royal family want an absurdist Anglo-Chinese garden filled with an architectural pastiche from around the globe, who dares say no? Parc Monceau was built in 1778 at the request of King Louis XVI’s cousin – the Duke of Chartres, Phillippe d’’Orléans – who dreamt of opening a park that would amaze and surprise all who passed through its gates by foregrounding his eclectic taste in landscape design and architecture. What resulted was a monumental act of public folly, albeit one that possessed a tender charm all its own.

Constructed with a distinct lack of care for either the epoch or people from which he was borrowing, Parc Monceau originally contained a Roman colonnade, a miniature Egyptian pyramid, a Tartar tent, a Dutch windmill, a water lily pond, an enchanted grotto, a temple of Mars, an Italian vineyard and numerous antique statues, all within arms’ reach of each other. At the time of its debut, the garden also featured servants in flamboyant dress and exotic animals like camels. Taken as a whole, none of it it made much sense, but that had never really been the Duke’s point; unlike the Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale which was built to mimic foreign cultures for spectatorship, Parc Monceau was built as pure fantasy.
Atlas Obscura.

Parc Monceau had its beginning in 1769 when Louis Philippe, the duke of Chartres, who was also the cousin of Louis XVI and the father of King Louis-Philippe I and who would later become the Duc d’Orléans and be known as Philippe-Egalité, purchased a hectare of land on Boulevard de Courcelles. At this time he had architect Louis-Marie Colignon build a pavillion in the middle of a French-styled garden. During 1773-1778, he acquired twelve more surrounding hectares. He built on this property, with the designing help of painter Carmontelle, a windmill, a minaret, a pyramid, a Chinese pagoda, a Roman temple, a waterfall and the “Naumachie” which is a pond half-encircled by broken Corinthian columns. . . In 1793, the now Duc d’Orléans bought more of the surrounding properties and landscape architect Thomas Blaikie transformed the garden with trees and lawns into an English-styled garden. This was one of the first landscaped parks in Paris and it become a place of festivities.
Paris Walking Tours

After the monarchy was restored, the park was returned to the family of the Duke. During the Second Empire, the family sold lots within the park to real estate developers, who built luxurious town houses, reducing the size of the park by half. The remaining part of the park was purchased by the city of Paris in 1860. All that remained of the original folly was the water lily pond, the stream and the fantasy “tombs”, including the Egyptian pyramid.

In 1860, the park was purchased by the city, and in August 1861 Parc Monceau became the first new public park in Paris to be created by Baron Haussmann as part of the grand transformation of Paris begun by Emperor Louis Napoleon. Two main alleys were laid out from east to west and north to south, meeting in the center of the park, and the alleys within the park were widened and paved, so carriages could drive the park. An ornamental gate 8.3 m (27 ft) high was installed along a newly created avenue, boulevard Malesherbes, curving paths were laid out around the park for strolling. The pavillon de Chartres was also modified by the architect, Gabriel Davioud, who had a graceful classical dome added to the structure. He also built a bridge modeled after the Rialto bridge in Venice over the stream to replace the Chinese bridge by Carmontelle that had once been there. He preserved the other follies remaining from the original garden. Haussmann embellished the park with a rich collection of exotic trees and flowers from around the world.

The park is unusual in France due to its “English” style: its informal layout, curved walkways and randomly placed statues distinguish it from the more traditional, French-style garden. It includes a collection of scaled-down architectural features, or follies — including an Egyptian pyramid, a Chinese fort, a Dutch windmill, and Corinthian pillars. A number of these are masonic references, reflecting the fact that Philippe d’Orléans was a leading freemason. Parc Monceau includes statues of famous French figures including Guy de Maupassant, Frédéric Chopin, Charles Gounod, Ambroise Thomas, Alfred de Musset, and Edouard Pailleron.
Wikipedia.

La Grande Roue (The Big Wheel), Paris


PARIS — La Grande Roue.
c.1910


PARIS (VII)  La Tour Eiffel et la Grande Roue
Eiffel Tower and Big Wheel
Publisher: F. Fleury, Paris

Le Village Suisse–site of the 1900 Exposition Universelle de Paris

100 metre high Ferris wheel, built in 1899 for the Exposition Universelle and dismantled 1920.

Ferris wheels were a new thing at the time. The first one was built just a few years earlier for the world’s fair in Chicago in 1893. A mere 80 metres in height.

A REVOLVING PALACE.
Paris is to out-Ferris Ferris. The great Chicago wheel is to be outdone in the universal exposition of 1900. The special wonder of the French fair will be the revolving palace, designed by the eminent architect, M. Charles Devie. It is a hexagonal shaft, 350 feet in height, divided into 25 storeys. The entire palace will be coveted with nickel plate, aluminum, ornamental tiling and glass. This gorgeous structure will be illuminated by 20,000 incandescent and 5,000 arc lights of varied colours, so as to bring out clearly all the decorative lines, balconies, turrets, pillars, and statues. In the loft of the palace will be a chime of 64 bells and a powerful organ, played upon by the aid of compressed air. The entire structure will turn on a pivot, the motive power being hydraulic pressure. It will make one revolution an hour.

Coburg Leader, 22 July 1899

All the numbers:
GIANT WHEEL OF PARIS.
A trial of the “Great Wheel of Paris” was made lately. It stands on Avenue de Suffern, opposite the celebrated gallery of machines of the Exposition of 1889. The idea of such a construction is due to Mr. Graydon, an officer of marines of the United States navy, who took out a patent for it in 1893. The present project emanates from an English society. The first wheel of this kind was constructed for the Chicago Exhibition, but it did not attain the dimensions of the one under consideration. The metal is steel, furnished by the Societe des Forges et Acieries de Haumont (Nord). The wheel is designed to revolve around a horizontal axis situated at 220ft. above the ground. At its periphery there is a series of cars that are carried along in the rotary motion of the apparatus. The diameter of the wheel is exactly 93 metres (305ft.). At the lowest level the cars will be 10ft. above ground, and their highest point will be 315ft. above the surface. The total weight of the wheel, inclusive of the empty cars and exclusive of the axis and frames, is 1,430,0001b. The axis weighs 79,2001b., and the two frames 873,4001b. The total weight is, therefore, 2,382,6001bs. Each car is capable of accommodating 3 Persons, and the number of cars is 41 supposing the average weight of each passenger to be 1541b., the total load upon the foundation will be 1,167 tons. The foundation is of concrete made Portland cement. Two excavations, 181 square and 39ft. deep, were made, and filled with a mixture of sand, pebbles, and pure cement, without the addition of any hydraulic lime. The wheel makes oil revolution in 20 minutes, inclusive of stoppages. Access to the cars is obtained through a system of stairways and landings so arranged that eight cars can be filled and emptied simultaneously, without any blockade, in less than one minute. Each car is 42.5ft. in length. The wheel is to be illuminated with electricity for night use.

The Australasian, 24 April 1899

From “A Soldier’s Letter”:
Next I went to the Eifell Tower. I could not go to the top on account of the war, but it is the highest in the world. Near there is the “Grande Rue” (big road), which is a huge “ferris wheel,” 400 feet high. It is the largest in the world and takes 20 minutes to go round, and from the top all Paris can be seen.
The Wyalong Advocate and Mining, Agricultural and Pastoral Gazette, 9 April 1918

More pictures.
More pictures with a focus on location, then and 2015.
Contemporary description (in French, rather awful translation).
The Paris Gigantic Wheel and Varieties Company Limited (This put the Wheel in a bigger context, in terms of the Exposition and the world in general at the time.)