Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna


On back:
Ehem. kaiserl. Lustschloß Schönbrunn. Wien.
Chinesisches. Rundkabinett.
Schoenbrunn, the Old Imperial Castle of Pleasure.
Chinese Rotunda.
Ancien château de plaisance impérial de Schoenbrunn. Vienne.
Rotonde chinoise.

c. 1930
Publisher (artist): Johann Jaunbersin

Schönbrunn Palace was the main summer residence of the Habsburg rulers, located in Hietzing, Vienna. The name Schönbrunn (meaning “beautiful spring”) has its roots in an artesian well from which water was consumed by the court. The 1,441-room Rococo palace is one of the most important architectural, cultural, and historic monuments in the country. The history of the palace and its vast gardens spans over 300 years, reflecting the changing tastes, interests, and aspirations of successive Habsburg monarchs. . . . The Schönbrunn Palace in its present form was built and remodelled during the 1740–50s during the reign of empress Maria Theresa who received the estate as a wedding gift. Franz I commissioned the redecoration of the palace exterior in the neoclassical style as it appears today. Franz Joseph, the longest-reigning emperor of Austria, was born at Schönbrunn and spent a great deal of his life there. He died there, at the age of 86, on 21 November 1916. Following the downfall of the Habsburg monarchy in November 1918, the palace became the property of the newly founded Austrian Republic and was preserved as a museum.
Wikipedia.

After the death of Emperor Ferdinand II in 1637, the estate became the dower residence of his art-loving widow, who needed the appropriare architectural setting for her busy social life. She therefore had a château de plaisance built around 1642, which was accompanied by the renaming of the Katterburg to Schoenbrunn, a change of name first documented in the same year. In 1683 the château de plaisance and its deer park fell victim to the depredations of Turkish troops during the siege of Vienna. From 1686 the estate was in the possession of Emperor Leopold I, who decided that he would make the estate over to his son and heir Joseph, and have a splendid new residence built for him.

Soon afterwards the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, an architect who had received his training in Rome and had been recommended by patrons from the nobility, arrived at court. In 1688 he presented the Emperor with a preliminary set of designs for a new palace, the so-called Schoenbrunn I-Project, and in 1693 Leopold I commissioned concrete plans for the construction of a grand hunting lodge, on which work started in 1696. The new edifice was partly built on the existing foundations of the château de plaisance that had been destroyed by the Turks. The construction of the lateral wings was delayed from 1701 owing to the War of the Spanish Succession and the attendant financial constraints, and came to a complete halt after Joseph’s sudden death.
Schönbrunner Schlossstraße Knozerta

To either side of the Small Gallery are the East Asian Cabinets, until recently known erroneously as Chinese cabinets. Only the right-hand cabinet can correctly be termed Chinese in reference to the Chinese porcelain displayed there, while the left-hand east cabinet should be referred to as the Japanese Oval Cabinet. Both rooms have a distinctly intimate character and were used by Maria Theresa for small social gatherings, for example for playing cards. Before the rooms were decorated as we see them today, the Round Cabinet was used as a small conference room, in which the so-called ‘tables de conspiration‘ took place. These were secret conferences at which meals were served to the participants by means of a moveable table winched up from the room on the floor below, so that they would not be disturbed or eavesdropped upon by the servants.
Schloss Schönbrunn

Armoury, Governor’s Palace, Valletta Malta


The Armoury, Governor’s Palace.
1900s

Ever since its construction by the Order of St John [in the 16th century], this Palace was richly embellished with collections of works of art and heritage items, some of which still grace its walls. While some of these were purposely produced to form part of the historic fabric of the building, others were acquired, transferred or presented at different times throughout the chequered history of the Palace. Destined for grandiosity, right from its beginning, this Palace was one of the first buildings which were constructed at the heart of the new city of Valletta, founded by Grand Master Jean de Valette. Successive Grand Masters enlarged and developed this building to serve as their official residence. Later, during the British Period, it served as the Governor’s Palace, and was the seat of Malta’s first constitutional parliament in 1921.
Heritage Malta

The Palace Armoury is an arms collection housed at the Grandmaster’s Palace in Valletta, Malta. It was the main armoury of the Order of St. John in the 17th and 18th centuries, and as such it was the last arsenal established by a crusader military order.
. . .
In 1604, the Order’s arsenal was transferred to the Grandmaster’s Palace by Alof de Wignacourt, and was housed in a large hall at the rear of the building. At the time, it contained enough arms and armour for thousands of soldiers. The armoury was rearranged under Manuel Pinto da Fonseca’s magistracy in the 18th century. Parts of the armoury are believed to have been removed and shipped to France during the French occupation of Malta in 1798–1800, as part of “the organised robbery of art treasure and historic treasures” carried out by Napoleon. In the early 19th century, the armoury was altered by the British with the addition of Egyptian style column-like supports. These were removed and returned to England in 1855. In the late 1850s, the armoury was restored under the personal direction of Governor John Gaspard Le Marchant, and it opened to the public as a museum in 1860
Wikipedia.

Dungeon of the Château de Loches, Loches, France


41 — LOCHES (L-et-L.) — Donjon. Cachot du Duc d’Alençon
(Dungeon. Prison of the Duc d’Alençon.)
1920s
Published by  Levy & Neurdein

Street View (exterior)

The castle (sometimes also called simply “dungeon”) of Loches, in the eponymous commune of Indre-et-Loire, 40 km south-east of Tours, is a castle built in the eleventh century in the heart of a city royal which also includes a “home” (palace) and a collegiate. The whole city situated on a rocky outcrop is surrounded by a wall. The dungeon was built between 1013 and 1035 by the Count of Anjou Foulques Nerra. It resists several seats and over the centuries, is equipped with new elements: a curtain (XII), towers (XIII), a house for its governor (XIV), a round tower and a barbican (XV). The fortified building is composed of two parts: the large dungeon, rectangular in shape of about 25 by 14 meters, formerly adorned with a crown, and a fore-body adjoining its north face, called “little dungeon”. The thickness of the walls varies from 3.40 m at the base to 2.60 m at the summit. In the 15th century, the castle became a royal prison, a vocation that he kept until the Revolution, then changing into a prison from 1801 to 1926.
France-Voyage

John II of Alençon (Jean II d’Alençon) (2 March 1409 – 8 September 1476) was a French nobleman. He succeeded his father as Duke of Alençon and Count of Perche as a minor in 1415, after the latter’s death at the Battle of Agincourt. He is best known as a general in the Last Phase of the Hundred Years’ War and for his role as a comrade-in-arms of Joan of Arc.

John was discontented with the Treaty of Arras, having hoped to make good his poverty through the spoliation of the Burgundians. He fell out with Charles VII, and took part in a revolt in 1439–40, (the Praguerie) but was forgiven, having been a lifelong friend of the king. He took part in the invasion of Normandy in 1449, but he had unwisely entered into correspondence with the English since 1440. (He had also accepted the Order of the Golden Fleece at this time.) Shortly after testifying at the “rehabilitation trial” of Joan of Arc in 1456, he was arrested by Jean de Dunois and imprisoned at Aigues-Mortes. In 1458, he was convicted of lèse-majesté and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted and he was imprisoned at Loches. He was released by Louis XI upon terms at his accession in 1461, but he refused to keep them and was imprisoned again. He was tried a second time before the Parlement of Paris and sentenced to death again on 18 July 1474, and his Duchy was confiscated. However, the sentence was not carried out, and he died in prison in the Louvre in 1476.
Wikipedia.


LOCHES (L-et-L.) –Le Donjon – Sculptures dans le mur la Salle d’Armes
The Dungeon – Sculptures in the wall (Room of Arms)
1910s
Published: A. Papeghin, Paris-Tours (1900-1931)


Detailed plain of the chateau (from Wikimedia Commons)


Detailed view of the dungon (from Wikimedia Commons)

Palace, Thanjavur, India


Tanjore. Interior of Palace
Publisher: D. Macropolo & Co, Calcutta

Google Street View (approximate).

The Thanjavur Maratha palace was originally constructed by the rulers of Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. The construction of Thanjavur Palace began in 1534 and was completed in 1535, thanks to plenty of local prisoners of war who provided manual labor. The Palace was officially called “Sivagangai Fort” and was held by the Nayak family until April 1674, when the Maratha ruler Venkoji captured it. After the fall of the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, it served as the official residence of the Thanjavur Maratha. The Marathas enhanced the original structure and expanded the palace complex.

The Thanjavur Palace is a huge complex that has many architectural features. The massive complex consists of huge halls, wide corridors, multi-storied observation towers and a shady courtyard. As you walk across, you can see that some parts of the complex are in ruins while other parts show that restoration work has been taken up to revive and protect the monument.
Thanjavur Tourism

Herrenchiemsee New Palace, Germany


Sschloß Herrenchiemsee
(Castle of Herrenchiemsee)
Publisher: Zierer

Google Street View.

Palace Tour

Herrenchiemsee is a complex of royal buildings on Herreninsel, the largest island in the Chiemsee lake, in southern Bavaria, Germany. Together with the neighbouring isle of Frauenchiemsee and the uninhabited Krautinsel, it forms the municipality of Chiemsee, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Munich. The island, formerly the site of an Augustinian monastery, was purchased by King Ludwig II of Bavaria in 1873. The king had the premises converted into a residence, known as the Old Palace (Altes Schloss). From 1878 onwards, he had the New Herrenchiemsee Palace (Neues Schloss) erected, based on the model of Versailles. It was the largest, but also the last of his building projects, and remained incomplete.
Wikipedia.

In 1873 King Ludwig II of Bavaria acquired the Herreninsel as the location for his Royal Palace of Herrenchiemsee (New Palace). Modelled on Versailles, this palace was built as a “Temple of Fame” for King Louis XIV of France, whom the Bavarian monarch fervently admired.The actual building of this “Bavarian Versailles”, which was begun in 1878 from plans by Georg Dollmann, was preceded by a total of 13 planning stages. When Ludwig II died in 1886 the palace was still incomplete, and sections of it were later demolished.
Herrenchiemsee Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung


Kgl. Schloss Herrenchiemsee
Beratungszimmer

Council Chamber
c.1920
Publisher: Felix Durner,

Sanssouci, Potsdam, Germany


On back:
Potsdam, Sanssouci
Schloß. Musikzimmer.

Music Room
Publisher: Staatliche Bildstelle/Deutscher Kunstverlag (which Googles translates to: “State Image Agency/German art publisher”)

Google Street View.

No other palace is so closely linked with the personality of Frederick the Great as Sanssouci. The name Sanssouci – without a care – should be understood as both the primary wish and leitmotif of the king, because this was the place where he most preferred to retreat in the company of his dogs. The king’s summer residence was ultimately his favorite place and sanctuary in difficult times.
Sanssouci Palace, Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg

Sanssouci is a historical building in Potsdam, near Berlin. Built by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, as his summer palace, it is often counted among the German rivals of Versailles. While Sanssouci is in the more intimate Rococo style and is far smaller than its French Baroque counterpart, it too is notable for the numerous temples and follies in the park. The palace was designed/built by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff between 1745 and 1747 to fulfill King Frederick’s need for a private residence where he could relax away from the pomp and ceremony of the Berlin court.

The principal entrance area, consisting of two halls, the “Entrance Hall” and the “Marble Hall”, is at the centre, thus providing common rooms for the assembly of guests and the court, while the principal rooms flanking the Marble Hall become progressively more intimate and private, in the tradition of the Baroque concept of state rooms. Thus, the Marble Hall was the principal reception room beneath the central dome. Five guest rooms adjoined the Marble Hall to the west, while the King’s apartments lay to the east – an audience room, music room, study, bedroom, library, and a long gallery on the north side.
Wikipedia.


On back:
Potsdam, Sanssouci
Bibliothek.

Library
Publisher: Staatliche Bildstelle

Google Street View.

The circular library deviated from the spatial structure of French palace architecture. The room is almost hidden, accessed through a narrow passageway from the bedroom, underlining its private character. Cedarwood was used to panel the walls and for the alcoved bookcases. The harmonious shades of brown augmented with rich gold-coloured Rocaille ornaments were intended to create a peaceful mood. The bookcases contained approximately 2,100 volumes of Greek and Roman writings and historiographies and also a collection of French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries with a heavy emphasis on the works of Voltaire. The books were bound in brown or red goat leather and richly gilded.
Wikipedia.

Chateau Pierrefonds, Pierrefonds, France


PIERREFONDS. — Le Château. — Vue intérieure de la Colonnade de la Cour d’Honneur. – LL
Interior view of the colonnade
c.1910
Publisher: Levy & Sons

Google Street View (colonnade)
Google Street VIew (exterior).

Wikipedia.

Duke Louis of Orleans (1372-1407), brother of Charles VI, whilst battling with the Duke of Burgundy for royal power, built a fortress at Pierrefonds in 1397. He thus confirmed his power and took control of trade between Flanders and Burgundy.

In 1617, the cattle was dismantled under the order of King Louis XIII to prevent it from becoming a refuge for his enemies. The towers were ripped open. This ruin soon became forgotten until it was bought in 1810 by Napoleon I. Its appearance of a romantic ruin made it a very popular site in the 19th century.

In 1857, the Emperor Napoleon III (1808-1873) wanted to turn Pierrefonds into an imperial residence. This project was never completed and the castle became a museum and was opened to the public in 1867. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1814- 1879), the architect entrusted with its restoration, employed architectural concepts to recreate a perfect castle such as might have existed in the Middle Ages. After his death, his son-in-law Maurice Ouradou continued the work until 1885, without ever completing it.
Chateau Pierrefonds guide book

Bey Palace, Tunis


TUNIS. – Palais du Bardo, la Salle de Justice

The fortified military city of Bardo which is the centre of the Husseini power since 1705, witnessed the edification of sumptuous buildings within its walls.
Ali Pacha, the second sovereign of the dynasty between 1735 and 1756, built a first palace with a monumental entrance staircase guarded by lion statues.
Between 1824 and 1835, Hussein Bey built the “Small Tunisian Palace” characterized by Moorish Andalousian style.
Between 1859 and 1864, Mhammed Bey built the harem called “Qasr Al-Badii” which was characterized by an Italianist style.
These latter two residences, which are close to each other, remained the Bey’s residences until 1879. Sadok Bey, who was responsible for the bankruptcy of the kingdom, was obliged to restrain his lifestyle and move to Ksar Said where he had a much more modest residence.

National Bardo Museum


TUNIS – Le Bardo – Le Petit Patio
Possibly 1940s but from an earlier photo
Publisher: Compagnie Alsacienne des Arts Photomécaniques Strasbourg

Dar Hassan Pacha/Winter Palace, Algiers, Algeria


ALGER.-Palais d’hiver. — Galerie Mauresque
c.1910

Google Maps (no street view).

Dar Hassan Pacha is an 18th-century palace located in the Casbah of Algiers, Algeria. It was built in 1791 and used to belong to Hassan III Pasha, who signed a treaty with the US September 5, 1795. After 1830, it became the winter residence of the Governor of Algiers, and as a consequence, it was completely remodelled in 1839, when the entrance has been changed and a new facade was created.
Wikipedia.

Hassan Pacha was the ruler of Algiers and a man with a sense of purpose – in 1795 he concluded a peace treaty with the fledgling USA guaranteeing their ships safe passage in Algiers’ waters. Before that, around 1791, he began work building his palace on the edge of the Casbah, but away from the waterside, which was vulnerable and damp in winter. When Algiers fell to the French the house was turned into the governor’s winter residence. Its facade was remodelled, and unlike most large houses here the Dar Hassan Pacha was given a European-style front, with rows of large windows and balconies and a grander entrance.
Lonely Planet

ArchNet