Houses in the rock, Graufthal, France


GRAUFTAL Maisons construites dans le roc
[Houses built into the rock]
c.1930
Publisher: La Cigogne, Strasbourg

Google Street View.

(Translated with Google Translate)
In 1899, the archaeologist Robert Forrer undertook to excavate the site of the troglodyte habitat of Graufthal. From these works we can conclude that after being used as warehouses in the Middle Ages, the rocky overhangs were converted into dwellings, probably around 1760, as indicated by a vintage, which has now disappeared, engraved on the lintel of a door. People of modest means settled using the rock cavities to reduce the surface area of ​​roofs and facades. These houses were occupied until 1958. . . . The troglodyte houses have two sets housed in two horizontal faults. The residential houses, embedded in the first fault, are located approximately 7 meters above the village. The Match Factory is located in the Upper Rift. These buildings are built directly on the rock, in rubble masonry, partially covered with flat tiled roofs, where the rocks do not completely overhang them. The frames are basic, the interior partitioning rudimentary. Access to the complex is via a passageway bordering a rock projection. A ramp provides fall protection.
Ministere de la Culture

The houses are set into caves in red sandstone cliffs. There are two sets of buildings in two horizontal caves, reached by a footpath. The houses are in the first cave, about 7 metres (23 ft) above the village street. A match factory is located in the upper cave. These buildings are built into the rock, with rubble masonry, and are partially covered with tile roofs where they are not fully protected by the rock ceiling. They are roughly built, with rudimentary internal partitioning. The houses have the same internal layout. On the ground floor there is a kitchen beside the room where the parents would have lived, and a stable with unplastered walls. Above that is a second floor holding a dormitory for the children and a hayloft and granary.
Wikipedia.


Part of photo “Felsenwohnungen in Graufthal”, after 1870. from Wikimedia Common

kunanyi/Mt Wellington, Hobart, Australia


The Pinnacle, Mount Wellington, Hobart
c.1910

(Note the writing on the rock to the right.)

Google Street View.

Entries from “Wellington Park Historic Heritage Inventory & Audit Project”, Vol. 2, A Mcconnell & L. Scripps, 2005(PDF):

The Pinnacle
Natural Feature of scenic beauty visited regularly by Europeans from the 1830s to the present day, and until the 1930s on foot. First known non-Aboriginal ascent (by George Bass) was Dec 1798; many famous people have climbed Mt Wellington (eg, Charles Darwin). A Cornish* photo shows a wide made packed dolerite rubble (no earth) path leading up (N side?) to a summit cairn (?) (with a square base and a peaked top with the base of timber pole protruding) .  .  .  Social values are primarily as a major viewing point; but also used regularly for snow play, to see the sun rise on New Year’s Day (p. 60)

Trig Station on Mt Wellington summit
The stone base is probably part of one of James Sprent’s cairns for his trigonometric survey of Tasmania(1832-37 & 1850s) – probably established between 1832-1837. (p.53)

Wragge’s Summit Observatory
Wragge’s first observatory (meteorological station) in Hobart was established on the summit of Mt Wellington in May 1895 by Clement Wragge. According to Thwaites* a hollow cairn of rocks was built first to temporarily house the instruments and then a timber hut was built. The Observatory Hut was 12′ x 8′, and from 7′-12′ high. It was a timber building lined with wood and with a corrugated iron roof. The entire building was surrounded by a wall and covered with an outer roof of rocks (a 1910 photo (Cornish*) shows a large round ‘cairn’ of rocks with peaked dome on N side of the Pinnacle which may be the rock covered hut?). The hut contained a large fireplace. Mr Arthur Wherrett was appointed as the summit observatory observer. When fitted out it was regarded as “the equal of any such station in Australia” (Thwaites*). The observatory was set up to improve the weather forecasting ability by being able to take atmospheric pressure readings at height (as well as at sea level – the Anglesea Barracks observatory) building on methods pioneered by Wragge in Scotland in the 1880s. Wragge was in the forefront of meteorological forecasting, being awarded a Royal Meteorological Society gold medal for his work in Scotland (on Ben Nevis) and he issued the first Australasian weather charts and forecasts (for each of the colonies and New Zealand) in 1887, and he began the tradition of naming cyclones. (p. 88)

* J. Thwaites, “Clement Wragge’s Observatory on Mt Wellington” . Tasmanian Tramp No. 24, 1982-3
* Ted Cornish, “Early Mt Wellington Huts” & “History [of a] Bushwalking Hut, Mt Wellington”, unpublished manuscript with photographs, 1969; copies held by Wellington Park Management Trust

Axenstrasse, Switerland


Galleries an der Axenstrasse mit Blick auf Vierwaldstättersee u. Brisenstock
[Galleries (the open bits on the side) along the Axenstrasse with views of Vierwaldstättersee (Lake Lucerne) & Brisenstock (the mountain)]
c.1910
Publisher: E. Goetz, Lucerne

Google Street View.

The engineer, Landamman (cantonal council’s president) of Uri, and Federal Councillor of State Karl Emanuel Müller (1804–1869) initiated the first road for horse-drawn carriages. Construction on a new road to connect Flüelen to Brunnen began in 1861, and was completed in 1865. The name of the Axenstrasse refers to one particular part of the mountains the Axenstrasse circumvents and traverses, the 600 m (2,000 ft) high, vertical rock between Flüelen and Sisikon, actually a farmed meadow terrace (Ober Axen and Unter Axen) right below the much higher Rophaien (2,078 m (6,818 ft)). The route, especially in the part south of Sisikon, involves many open passages with rock galleries and numerous openings in the west tunnel walls viewing Urnersee as a result of the tunnel blasting through the calcareous rock. The road costs were 842,000 francs in 1865, half of which was paid for by the federal government of Switzerland. Between 1937 and 1939, the Axenstrasse was altered to suit modern traffic in lieu of horse-drawn carriages, and a lane in each direction for road traffic was paved. Many sections of the old Axenstrasse were also closed to automotive traffic to serve as hiking trails
Wikipedia.

The road was built along steep cliffs on the east side of Lake Lucerne, weaving through many rock fall galleries and tunnels along its route. Adverse weather conditions are common. Ice and snow can be on the way. Upon completion in 1865, the Axenstrasse was the first way to get to Uri that did not involve navigating Lake Lucerne. The route between the Axen Mountain and Flüelen existed in 1776 as the Landstrasse (country road). Construction on a new road to connect Flüelen to Brunnen began in 1861, and was completed in 1865. It was named the Axenstrasse because the road is located along the Axen Mountain.
Dangerous Roads


Axenstrasse mit Bristenstock
[Bristenstock is the mountain]
1900s
Publisher: Photoblob Co, Zurich

Vesuvius, Italy


Napoli. | Il Vesuvio-Cratere in eruzione
(Crater of Vesuvius erupting)
1900s
Publisher: Ettore Ragozino, Galleria Umberto-Napoli

Probably a modified/fabricated image, published just before the 1906 eruption.

Mount Vesuvius is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

The eruption of 5 April 1906 killed more than 100 people and ejected the most lava ever recorded from a Vesuvian eruption. Italian authorities were preparing to hold the 1908 Summer Olympics when Mount Vesuvius violently erupted, devastating the city of Naples and surrounding comunes. Funds were diverted to reconstructing Naples, and a new site for the Olympics had to be found./em>
Wikipedia.


Napoli. | Il Vesuvio-Carozza della Funicolare
(The Funicular car Vesuvia)
c.1904
Publisher: Ettore Ragozino, Galleria Umberto-Napoli

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Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe


Worlds View in the Matopos
1905-1910
Publisher: R. O. Füsslein, Johannesburg (1905-1910)

Google Street View (approximate).

Malindidzimu (“Hill of the Ancestral Spirits” in Ndebele) is a granite inselberg and a national historical monument situated in the Matobo National Park in south-west Zimbabwe, 25 miles (40 kilometers) south of Bulawayo. It is considered a sacred place by nationalists and indigenous groups. Controversially, Cecil Rhodes is buried on the summit of Malindidizumu, together with Charles Coghlan, Leander Starr Jameson, Allan Wilson and several other white settlers. he English name of the site is “World’s view” which is not to be confused with World’s View, Nyanga.
Wikipedia.

McDonald wrote: “We sat for some time afterwards in the shade of the vast round boulders that seemed to have been thrown up from the bowels of the earth and Rhodes was very silent for a time.” Then he said to himself really: “The peacefulness of it all, the chaotic grandeur of it, it creates a feeling of awe and brings home to one how very small we all are.” Then back he came to the present: “Grey, I call this one of the world’s views.” We all agreed to that, hence its name today: “The World’s View.”
ZimFieldGuide.com

Fluelen, Switzerland


Flüelen mit Bristenstock (3074 m)
(Flüelen with Bristenstock (3074 m) [in the background])
c.1920
Publisher: Photoglob Co, Zurich

Google Street View (location).

Flüelen formed an important transshipment point on Switzerland’s transport system for many centuries, and at least since the opening of the first track across the Gotthard Pass in 1230. The various routes across the pass reached Lake Lucerne at Flüelen, and until the latter half of the 19th century the lake provided the best onward link to the cities of northern Switzerland.
Wikipedia.

Èze, France


ÈZE – Vue générale
General view of Eze
1920s
Publishers: Bloc Freres

Google Street View (approximate).

By 1388 Èze fell under the jurisdiction of the House of Savoy, who built up the town as a fortified stronghold because of its proximity to Nice. The history of Èze became turbulent several times in the next few centuries as French and Turkish troops seized the village under orders from Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1543, and Louis XIV destroyed the walls surrounding the city in 1706 in the war of the Spanish succession. Finally in April 1860, Èze was designated as part of France by unanimous decision by the people of Èze.
Wikipedia.


EZE. – Entrée du Village. – Entrance of the Village. – LL

Publisher: Levy & Neurdein Reunis (1920-1932). Image might be earlier.

Google Street View

Today, Eze retains an aura of a town eternally under siege. There is still only a single entrance to the walled portion of the village. Visitors who approach the now doorless postern gate come eye to eye with a gun port. Once through the gate, they enter a small clearing ringed by high walls, from which it is easy to imagine spears, rocks and boiling oil being flung. Another arched opening, almost a tunnel, must be broached before entering La Placette, a small square that is the town’s largest open space save for the clearing in front of the church.
Paris Voice

Bullring & Rock La Linea, Spain & Gibraltar


Rock from Linea Bullring, Gibraltar
Published: Benzaquen & Co, Gibraltar

The bull ring in La Línea de la Concepción, a town in the province of Cádiz at the southern edge of Spain, close to the British territory of Gibraltar, was opened in 1883.

The bull ring is said to be unusual in that it has an odd number of sides. With 49 sides it is however nearly circular and it also has eleven entrances. The building was designed by Adolfo del Castillo and built on the Plaza de Arenal. It is now one of the oldest buildings in the town. The bull ring was built between 1880 and 1883 in a typical Andalusian style just thirteen years after the municipality was established. The bull ring is said to be a centre for meeting people including those from the nearby peninsula of Gibraltar. This may account for its original capacity being 6,000 people despite the town’s population only being 5,000 at the time.

Wikipedia.

La Coupée, Sark


5660. SARK LA COUPÉE.
(The Cut, Sark)
Postmarked 1912
Published Photochrom Co., London and Tunbridge Wells.

Street View

La Coupée, the causeway which joins big and little Sark, is about 100m long. It is a high ridge 80 metres (262 ft) above the sea which is only some three metres in width. This is gradually being eroded and Little Sark will eventually become an island (a similar process is likely to have occurred with Brecqhou close to Sark’s west coast).

Several small islets lie close to the shore of Little Sark. These include Moie de la Fontaine and Moie de la Bretagne on the west coast, Petite Baveuse, Moie du Port Gorey Seceuil and Bretagne Uset along the south coast, and Brenière on the east coast. Several tiny islets also lie in Baleine Bay, which stretches along much of the east coast of Little Sark and also the southeast coast of great Sark, and L’Etac de Sark and les Demies lie to the southeast of Little Sark.

Until the beginning of the twentieth century, access to Little Sark was extremely difficult or, at best, unnerving. La Coupée was traversed by a narrow dirt track, and children are reputed to have had to crawl across it on their hands and knees to prevent being blown over the edge by the wind. According to a description in 1875, “People have thrown themselves flat on their face, from terror and nervousness on reaching the Coupée; others have lost courage half way across, and have hidden themselves behind the heads of the rocks that crop up in the middle of the Coupée until some passer by came and led them along; others have been unable to get across without shutting their eyes and being led between two persons.” On 4 September 1802, Elie Guille of the Clos-à-Jaon was carrying sheaves of corn across La Coupée for the payment of tithes. He was blown over the East side and killed.
Isle of Sark