The White Tower was built between 1460 and 1494 and represents one of the most massive constructions of the fortification. The walls are 4 m thick in the basement and the tower is 19 m in diameter. It has battlements, holes for pitch and balconies. The tower is connected to Graft Bastion with a bridge. A fireplace is still preserved in the interior of the tower.
The White tower was built in 1494 on top of a rock. Its straight side closing a semicircle faces the city. The tower has 5 stories and its height ranges between 18-20 meters, depending on the grounds it is built on. It got its name from the whitewash that coated its walls. The top is bastion shaped and the offsets from which showers of stone were dropped on the attacking enemy are still standing on its sidewalls. The entrance of the tower was so high that a ladder was needed in order to get inside. Just like the other buildings, the tower also suffered damages in the 1689 fire which were remedied only in the 1723 restoring works. According to the town defense system the tin- and coppersmiths were responsible for the protection of the tower.
Welcome to Romania
(Via Google Translate)
Along its walls, the tower has ramparts, pit openings and balconies supported by consoles carved in stone. Being 59 m away from the fortress wall, the tower communicates with it through a drawbridge that connected the tower and the Graft Bastion. It overlooked Blumăna and, with its 5 floors, was the highest fortification point in Brașov. Inside the tower was kept the chimney above a hearth, which could also be used to heat the guards and defenders – tinsmiths and coppersmiths. In 1678, the tinsmiths’ guild bought back the obligation to defend the tower, the number of craftsmen being low.
The Eaglehawk Neck / Teralina is a narrow isthmus that connects the Tasman Peninsula with the Forestier Peninsula, and hence to mainland Tasmania, Australia. . . . Locally known as ‘the Neck’, the isthmus itself is around 400 metres (1,300 ft) long and under 30 metres (98 ft) wide at its narrowest point. The area features rugged terrain and several unusual geological formations. . . . As Eaglehawk Neck / Teralina forms a natural thin gateway between the peninsulas, it was used by the British as a place to stop convicts attempting to escape from Port Arthur and other penal institutions on the Tasman Peninsula. A system was developed where a line of dogs were chained to posts across the ‘Neck’ to warn of any convicts attempting to escape. The Dog Line was first implemented in 1831 and was used until the closure of Port Arthur in the 1870s. Thomas J. Lempriere, a commissary officer at Port Arthur, declared the Eaglehawk Neck as ‘impassable’. Despite this, many attempts were made by convicts to escape from the Tasman Peninsula via Eaglehawk Neck, including Martin Cash and William Bannon. The area was heavily patrolled by soldiers, and the guards’ quarters still remains as a museum.
The body of water known simply as “The Gorge” to Victoria locals is a narrow tidal inlet that connects Victoria Harbour to Portage Inlet. The Gorge Waterway is defined as the inlet between Craigflower Bridge and the Selkirk trestle. The Gorge has a rich history as an important spiritual place and food-gathering area for First Nations, and as a recreation area for Victoria residents.
Capital Regional District
The current Gorge Bridge connecting Saanich and Esquimalt along Tillicum Road was built in 1967, but that crossing had been used by First Nations for long before that. The first Gorge Bridge was constructed in 1848 by Roderick Finlayson, and consisted of five large Douglas fir logs laid across the narrows. Six other bridges followed, with the current version completed in 1967.
Interpretive sign captures history of Gorge Bridge (Victoria News)
The Gorge Bridge crosses “the Gorge”, the narrowest section of the 10-kilometre-long Gorge Waterway. The Gorge was the geographical centre of many attractionsand activities found along the Gorge Waterway during its historical heyday from 1880 to 1930 – a time when the waterway was renowned as one of Victoria’s main scenic attractions.” . . . To the east of the bridge there once were posh waterside mansions, bathhouse facilities for swimming and competition, the finish line for the Three Mile Swim, and dangerous high-diving towers. Steam-powered launches once cruised up the waterway from Victoria carrying tourists to view the “reversing falls”, visit Esquimalt’s Gorge Amusement Park, and enjoy the two waterside taverns. . . . To the west of the bridge, day-trippers from town enjoyed the Gorge Amusement Park (now Esquimalt Gorge Park) that opened in 1905 with rollercoaster rides, outdoor dances, variety shows and the ever-popular Japanese Tea Garden. . . . To reduce the steep approach, the fifth bridge was built at a greater height and was made five feet wider. The bridge officially opened July 6, 1899, and remained in service for 34 years.
Gorge Bridge, The Geographic Centre of the Gorgea
In 1888 a recreational hut was built besides the King’s Sawpits, where the original sawyer’s huts had once been located. From that point onwards, the huts were “a fundamental part … of the mountain experience to locals for over one hundred years” Lee Andrews & Associates Heritage Consulting, p38. In the period 1890-1910 the hut building reached its peak. In all, through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, around forty small huts were built on the mountain. They were used as weekend retreats, bases for walking and skiing, or even as homes. They were built of local bush materials, with small touches of refinement, such as ornate mantelpieces, verandahs, bush lattice gables, bridges, fern gardens and cellars. One hut had a piano. Some were linked with telephone wire to warn of approaching guests.
Built 1897, originally one room, then two rooms built on, the first subsequently being used as a toolshed. A two-level bridge was built here in 1901. George Mason, a well-known ranger and builder of the original Richards Monument, was the proprietor.
kunanyi/Mt Wellington History
Falls Hut was one of the better-known huts which featured frequently on postcards from around 1900 to 1920. Visitors came from interstate and overseas to sample the hut members’ hospitality. The hut was built in 1891 and renovated in 1903 with a new wing and an amazing rustic bridge.
List the Mountain
The zoo was first established as a private collection in a garden in Sandy Bay that the owner, Mary Roberts, opened to the public. When she died in 1921, the zoo was gifted to the city, and moved to this site on the Domain, where it was opened two years later. You can read about that here. . . . These gates were erected a few years back. They say interesting things like: “The Beaumaris Zoo opened here in 1923. In its early years it was a popular outing for the people of Hobart, but in the 1930s, the Great Depression led to falling attendance and rising financial losses. The zoo closed in 1937. In 1942, the Royal Australian Navy converted the site in to a fuel oil storage depot. It remained in use until as recently as the 1990s, when the four storage tanks were removed.”
A Visit to the Zoo (more pictures)
Mrs Roberts owned and operated the zoo until her death in 1921. The Roberts family then gifted the zoological collection to the Hobart City Council and, with a subsidy from the Tasmanian State Government, the zoo was moved to the Queens Domain. With sweeping views of the Derwent, the site underwent a restoration to house more than 100 animals and 220 birds and was opened in 1923. Elephants, bears, tigers, eagles, zebras, ducks, rabbits and spider monkeys featured as attractions. But the zoo is most famous for being home to just one animal. The last captive thylacine nicknamed “Benjamin” was trapped in the Florentine Valley, near Mt Field in 1933 and sent to the Hobart Zoo where it lived for three years.
MOVING A ZOO : PROBLEM FOR HOBART COUNCIL.
The Beaumaris Zoo at Hobart has been closed, but the evacuation of the animals and birds is no small problem. The polar bears, particularly, are determined not to be disturbed, and to date it has been found impossible to ensnare them for shipment to the Wellington (N.Z.) Zoological Gardens for which they have been purchased. It is a condition of sale that before they are taken delivery of the Hobart City Council must crate them. The bears have other ideas, and all attempts to trap them have failed. Different methods have been tried, with the object of decoying them into the den of their pit, but they are cunningly suspicious. No longer do they sleep in the den. For a time they were placed on reduced rations, and then a tempting meal was placed in a corner of the den. The male bear, with remarkable cunning, managed to reach the food with his front paw, and dragged it into the open, where it was devoured by the pair. There is a likelihood of the council seeking the assistance of the Melbourne Zoo authorities to capture the bears. A pair of Tasmanian devils has been sold to a private zoo in Brisbane.
Daily Examiner, 19 November 1937
Foundation stone laid May 1869 and church opened 20 May 1874, replacing an older wooden church.
Cemeteries & Churches & Things
This large cruciform bluestone church in the Decorated Gothic style was begun in 1869 and the building consecrated in 1874. It was designed by Henry Hunter, Tasmania’s most prolific Victorian architect. The tower was added early this century.1 The marble high altar and reredos were designed by Alexander North.
Organ Historcial Trust of Australia
Interior of Holy Trinity (Catholic) Church, Wesbury, North-Western Tasmania, showing the last resting place of the late Venerable Archdeacon Hogan (on the right)
Weekly Courier, 21 May 1914
Skansen Lejonet is a redoubt in Gothenburg, Sweden, built in 1687. Since 1822 it has served other purposes. The fortress and the twin counterpart, Skansen Kronan, were built according to plans by Erik Dahlbergh as part of the defenses against possible Danish attack on Gothenburg from the south, and thus had a similar purpose as the Älvsborg fortress. The fortress — originally built outside the city walls — is today centrally situated in the city of Gothenburg. . . . Skansen Lejonet was erected on the site for an older fortress, known as Gullbergs hus, first mentioned in 1303. It was many times destroyed by the Danes, and again rebuilt by the Swedes. Gullberg is the name of the hill of the fortress.
Skansen Lejonet: The Lion Redoubt, Medieval Fortress, Heraldic Lion of Gothenburg (Medium)
According to Statens Fastighetsverk, the National Property Board of Sweden, the fortress was subjected to repeated attacks, repairs and reinforcements. In 1612, Denmark captured the Swedish territories of the West Coast and totally destroyed the fortress. When Sweden regained this area, it needed to set up defences against new attacks. As the man in charge of building and maintain Sweden’s defences, Erik Dahlbergh had Skansen Westgötha Lejon (today known as Skansen Lejonet) built on Gullbergsklippan in 1687. Its purpose was to protect the newly fortified city of Gothenburg and the whole of Västergötland. . . .According to another expert, “Over time in Gothenburg changed from a fortified city into a centre of trade. In 1807 it was decided to demolish the fortifications, but the two redoubts, Lejonet and Kronan were spared. Skansen Lejonet served as a storehouse, first for gunpowder factory and later for Sweden’s home guard. In 1893 the redoubt was fitted with a new four metre copper lion to replace the original wooden lion that had rotted away. After 1942, Skansen Lejonet was left to deteriorate.
There are two redoubts in Gothenburg, the thing that divide them is the symbol in the top. One has a lion and the other one a crown. They are Gothenburg´s old defence redoubts from the end of the 1600´s. 1639 in the city council, a proposal was given. The mountains around the city should have redoubts to “insure the city”. . . Before the skans was placed here some other defence redoubts have been at this place. During a certain time the rock was without any defence. It was not until King Erik XIV 1568 gave orders about that the rock should have a defence. Then thing started to happen. . . . Skansen Westgötha Leijon started to be built June 22, 1687. The inauguration was perform by the King XI 1689, but the Skansen was not completely done before year 1694. The architect Erik Dahlbergh has made the design of Skansen and also Skansen Kronan. The walls are 22 feet thick and the building have two floors. Skansen has never been involve in any battle. When time passed the fortress lost it´s value within the army. Skansen was later also used as a place to live in and also used as a storage and eventually was left to its fate
I Love Goteborg
Okolí bylo upraveno Klubem ceských turistu roku 1901. V létech 1939-1945 a 1950-1990 bylo místo neprístupné. Obnoveno bylo roku 1968 (jen na chvíli) a naposledy v roce 1990 KCT Domažlice. Studánka je kryta altánkem a každorocne zde probíhá turistické setkání spojené se zamykáním a odemykáním studánky.
Vicinity of the spring was adjusted by The Czech Hiking Club (KCT) in 1901. Between the years 1939-1945 and 1950-1990 the place lay inside an inaccessible border zone. In 1968 the place was restored for a short time. The final restoration of the natural spring was realized by KCT Domažlice in 1990. Today the source is covered by an arbour. An annual tourist gathering is held there. This action is associated with a tradition of symbolical locking and unlocking of the spring.
(Translated with Google Translate)
Čerchov (German Schwarzkopf) with an altitude of 1042 m, the highest peak of the Bohemian Forest and the symbol of Chodsko, lies approximately 15 km southwest of Domažlice and less than 2 km from the German border. A mythical mountain in a mythical environment, where the Chod family used to guard the border and one of the few areas that remained Czech in the typically German border area until World War II. . . . A strong spring and a repaired gazebo await us in a place called Česká studánka . The well was renovated by the Czech Tourists Club as early as 1901, but was inaccessible for many years thanks to the border zone.
Club House and Grand Stand at Race Track, Tia Juana, Mexico
Publisher: M. Kashower Co, Los Angeles (1914-1934)
The first professional race track opened in January 1916, just south of the border gate. It was almost immediately destroyed by the great “Hatfield rainmaker” flood of 1916. Rebuilt in the general area, it ran horse races until the new Agua Caliente track opened in 1929, several miles south and across the river on higher ground.
The Mexican Government has notified that it will not permit the construction of a race track at Tia Juana, Lower California. Several wealthy Americans were interested in the venture. Furthermore, it is stated that it is the intention of the Mexican authorities to close the Juarez track, which has been conducted for the last few years by an American syndicate. The move against racing is said to be the first in a crusade by the Mexican Government against all sport on which money is wagered.
Referee, 29 December 1915
Back in 1909, all horse racing in California fell victim to an antigambling reform movement, and those in the state connected with the sport — inspired by the well-known success of the Juarez track across the border from El Paso — decided to build a track in Tijuana and exploit its proximity to Southern California population centers. A group of men headed by San Francisco boxing promoter James (Sunny Jim) Coffroth undertook the job of construction and management of a new racetrack in Tijuana. . . . Coffroth had little interest in horse racing as a sport, but he had a genius for promotion, plus numerous contacts among horsemen, journalists, businessmen. He obtained a major portion of the financing to build the Tijuana track from Adolph Spreckels, whose family — he was the brother of John D. Spreckels — for decades after made strong denials of the old man’s involvement. Spreckels was a horseracing buff and the owner of the Napa Stock Farm. He felt that Tijuana racing might help to return the sport to California; an added incentive may have been the fact that he owned the railroad spur to the border and needed an attraction like the racetrack to encourage people to make the ride to what was then a “desolate, scattering, wind-swept village,” as a Los Angeles Times writer described it at the time.
At the time the track was being built, General Esteban Cantu was in effective control of Baja California. He had been sent to the area in 1911 by the Mexican government to drive out the Americans who had come to Mexico to assist the revolution. Although the new revolutionary government in Mexico City vetoed the racetrack idea. Cantu, strongly of independent mind, was all for it, so construction proceeded on schedule. On January 1, 1916, the track, with a wooden grandstand, sparkling white fence, and 114-foot-long liquor bar, opened for business less than a quarter mile from the border crossing. (The site of the track is now partially covered by the freeways and by the Tia Juana River canal.) Coffroth’s friends in the press helped publicize the event and 10,000 people showed up on opening day. . . . On the day the track opened, it started raining again after a long drought. At first this seemed an auspicious omen, but the rain didn’t stop. It turned out to be one of the worst floods in Southern California history, which some believed had been brought on by a self-proclaimed magician known as Hatfield the Rainmaker, who had been hired by the City of San Diego to end the drought. The waters rose and the Tia Juana River flooded into the newly opened racetrack. Coffroth was undeterred; he obtained from Adolph Spreckels more money to rebuild the track. “Take it from me,” Coffroth proclaimed to the press, “Tijuana, with San Diego so close, is the ideal place for the Sport of Kings.” The rebuilt track (at the same location in the river bed) was officially called the Sunset Racetrack but usually known simply as “the Tijuana track.”
“The amazing and slightly sordid story of Aqua Caliente racetrack” (San Diego Reader)
It seemed the racing gods didn’t want Tijuana to have a racetrack. The first track, the Tijuana Jockey Club, was destroyed twice in its first year before Adolph Spreckels, who owned the Hotel del Coronado in San Diego, stepped in to save it. . . . The track location was near the U.S./Mexico border, and opening day’s six races drew 10,000 Californians, who were legally denied betting on horse racing at home at the time. The San Diego Union reported, “Surrounded by the mauve hills of old Mexico, as though nature intended the spot for the site, lies the magnificent new Tijuana race course, a miles from the thriving little village.”
It border location was also its downfall, as it was built on the low ground of the Tijuana riverbed. The sparkling new facility was only one week old when the nature that “intended the spot” included heavy rains and the word flooding in 25 years, which destroyed the track. To keep the momentum, the hastily rebuilt and reopened the track. That’s when Spreckels stepped in to help; they reopened the following year. Prohibition in the U.S. had fun-seeking Americans flocking south to newly opened Baja resorts and casinos. In 1928 American entrepreneurs built a beautiful casino at Agua Caliente (hot water) on higher ground on the outskirts of Tijuana. The following year they added the Hipódromo Agua Caliente (Caliente Race Track) on the location. The horsemen from the Tijuana Jockey Club had moved up the hill.
“Baja Legends: The Historic Characters, Events, and Locations That Put Baja California on the Map”, Greg Nieman, 2002, p.62
Your luck will be the luck of “Sure Thing, Johnny.” You will hope with him, you will cheer with him. You will stand with the mob in the Grandstand as tho great race nears Its tremendous finish. For thrilling, fast action romance it is a screen story of intense, spell-binding interest. All the life, all the colour of Tia Juana–America’s classic racing event–is mirrored in this gripping romance.
The Mercury, 18 September 1924
AN AUSTRALIAN IN MEXICO.
On a recent visit to Southern California, I took the opportunity to go south into Mexico, a country I had always, wished to see because of its romantic history. The first Mexican town i encountered was Tia Juana, a place consisting of honkey tonks, dance halls, faro tables, gambling dens, and saloons, chiefly patronised by Americans, who swarm across the border to slake a thirst accumulated under prohibition, and to see the races at the celebrated Tia Juana race track.
In this town can be seen the largest bar in the world, occupying an entire block, and measuring 2llft. of rows and rows of shining bottles. It could be fittingly called the “drunks’ paradise*” .The saloons are run in real frontier style, and most of them have soft-eyed Mexican girls lurking round to coax the unwary, stranger to “loosen up” on his roll. The southern maid is not so hard-faced as her nordic sister, but she prevails just the same. On race days the crowd is cosmopolitan, and of all colours–from the ebon of the negro through shades of tawny and yellow, to the white of the Caucasian. The day I was there Jack Dempsey and Estelle Taylor attended the races, probably to spend some of the cash Dempsey got when he lost the fight at Chicago.
The Australasian, 28 January 1928